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Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India. Located in northeast India, Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn-lit mountains". Literally it means "land of the rising sun" (Sanskrit: Arun: Sun, Pradesh: state, province or region) in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. It is also known as the "Orchid State of India" and the "Paradise of the Botanists".It is the biggest among the group of eastern states which are commonly known as Seven Sisters.

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Like other parts of Northeast India, a majority of the people native to the state are of Tibeto-Burman origin. A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.

The northern border of Arunachal Pradesh follows the McMahon Line, a border delineated in the Shimla Accord that was signed by the United Kingdom and Tibet in 1914 but not by China (as Tibet was not Chinese-controlled at that time). China claims the northern portion of Arunachal Pradesh as part of south Tibet. Arunachal Pradesh is the Indian state which has the largest number of regional languages.

Geography

Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28 N and 29.30 N latitude and 91.20 E and 97.30 E longitude and has 83,743 square kilometre area.

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan ranges running north south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpa in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.

At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.

The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.

Transport

Air

The state's airports are Daporijo Airport, Ziro Airport, Along Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are small and are not in operation. Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food. A green-field airport serving Itanagar is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion.

Roads

Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak, and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang. As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal.

Railway

Arunachal Pradesh has no railway line. It will get its first railway line in late 2013 when the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkong Selak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh is commissioned. The construction of the 33 km long 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway link has been completed in 2012 and the link will become operational when the gauge conversion of the main line under Project Unigauge is commissioned. The state capital Itanagar is 10 km from the new railhead Naharlagun. The new railway line will connect Itanagar with the Indian railway network.

Source : Wikipedia